In English, "flak" became a generic term for ground anti-aircraft fire. While the proposal was accepted in principle, the German authorities stated that they did not have that quantity of pieces available, so they paid off the debt in part with 8.8 cm Flak and partly with the 7.5 cm kanon (75/50 in the Italian name). Production started in 1942 with 10 twin sets produced, another eight in 1943, and in February 1945 a total of 34 were available. It allowed general area fire without line of sight, but had poor accuracy compared to the visual systems. The barrel for the 8.8 cm K.Zugflak L/45 was built from steel and was 45 calibers in length. 3 types of markings included, and decals are included to depict uniform insignias. When German “Condor Legion” troops, supporting the Nationalists in the Spanish Civil War, came under tank attack they turned their anti-aircraft guns on the Republican tanks. By the end of the war the 88 mm guns had performed far more missions as an anti-tank and direct-fire Field Artillery gun than as an anti-aircraft gun. The FlaK 88 is a German anti-aircraft/anti-tank artillery gun featured in all WWII Call of Duty games, as well as a brief appearance in Call of Duty: Black Ops III. - August 19, 2013, A German 88mm artillery piece fires in Russia, ca. Other uses included firing in support of the troops at the front and as a more static anti-aircraft gun for home defence. The prototype Flak 18 appeared in 1928. [28] The war in Spain, with its wildly fluctuating front lines and the presence of Russian tanks, forced the Germans to employ the Flak 18 guns in a direct fire mode against ground targets. The German Condor Legion made extensive use of the 8.8 cm Flak 18 in the Spanish Civil War, where its usefulness as an anti-tank weapon and general artillery piece exceeded its role as an anti-aircraft gun. 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Initially, anti-aircraft artillery guns of World War I were adaptations of existing medium-caliber weapons, mounted to allow fire at higher angles. [citation needed], The Flak 36 guns were briefly issued in late 1944 to the American Seventh Army as captured weapons. 36 and related auxiliary equipment. Faircount Media Group. [12], A prototype was ready in early 1941[12] leading to the designation 8.8 cm Flak 41. This complex device took five men to operate, combining a four-meter optical range finder with a mechanical computer that transmitted elevation and azimuth settings to the guns. The first is rather popular – a captured T-34 with a Flak 88 mounted on top – the “T-34(r) mit 8.8cm Flak“. It was this muzzle velocity, combine… Finally we ran out of ammunition and the Americans didn’t run out of tanks.”. In the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), the German Condor Legion deployed a mobile flak detachment with 88s, which proved accurate and versatile in combat. Extra features such as KS750 motorcycle, ammunition rack, shells, and range finder included for a realistic display. “Well, it’s like this. About the Model High-quality 1/35 scale assembly kit of the German 88mm Flak 36 in the service in North African theatre. The less open terrain in Italy and Northern France was less suitable for long-range AT guns. The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the 1930s. [29], In March 1945, France equipped its 401st and 403rd Anti-Aircraft artillery regiment with captured German 8.8 guns, associated with British GL Mk. [citation needed] The flak detachment with 88s proved accurate and versatile in combat against mainly land targets, the high muzzle velocity and large caliber making it an excellent long-range anti-vehicle and anti-bunker weapon. It was introduced in Update 1.63 "Desert Hunters". During 1942 tests were made using the Flak 41 barrel and Flak 37 chassis but these identified that the chassis could not take the strain even when strengthened. Casualties among the legion's 88 mm gun batteries in the Spanish Civil War were second only to those among the bomber pilots. These shields could be retro-fitted on older Flak 18s as well. Thousands of 88 mm guns were produced throughout the war in various models and mounts. It appears as though the T-34(r) mit 8.8… Even though it was intended for firing at enemy aircraft, it could also be a good anti –tank gun. The Flak 18 was mounted on a cruciform gun carriage. More than sixty Matilda tanks were destroyed by these guns during this battle. For the similarly named perk, see Flak Jacket. Penetration of the Pzgr. For direct fire against ground targets, each gun had a ZF 20-E telescopic sight. Flak 37 gun at the Deutsches Panzermuseum, Munster, Germany, Flak 37 gun at the Anti-aircraft Museum in Hyrylä, Finland, Flak 36 gun in position at Bir Hakeim, North Africa, June 1942, Flak 36 battery in firing position, Germany, 1943, FuMG 39 “Würzburg” radar at an anti-aircraft position on the Atlantic Wall, France, 1942, 8.8 cm Flak 36 with Flak Rohr 18 barrel at the, Comparison with similar anti-aircraft guns, Weapons of comparable role, performance and era, In German, the comma is used as the decimal separator, hence official punctuation was actually "8,8 cm" and not "8.8 cm". [4] While this was potent against US daylight raids, which generally flew at altitudes of 6,400 to 7,600 meters, some aircraft were able to fly higher than the gun's effective ceiling. The main armament of the Tiger II heavy tank, the KwK 43 tank gun, was the PaK 43 adapted for tank use, and it was considered for the Panther II tank. As an anti-aircraft gun it fired a 9.2 kilogram (20 lb) shell at a muzzle velocity of 840 m/s to an effective ceiling of 8000 meters,[33] with a maximum ceiling of 9900 meters. Lulu Publishing. The second vehicle is a T-34/85 with a barrel reamed to fire 8.8cm shells – the “T-34(r) mit 8.8cm (85mm Aufgehbort)“. © 2020 Defense Media Network. [24] The batteries were supplied complete with a Zeiss firing station Mod. [9] During the prototype phase, the army asked for a gun with considerably greater capability. In fact all 8.8 cm Flak guns were capable of operation in the dual role.[11]. [9] With the increase of aircraft performance, many armies developed dedicated AA guns with a high muzzle velocity – allowing the projectiles to reach greater altitudes. The following museums include 8.8 cm Flak guns in their collections. Of the latter, a small number were 10.5 cm Flak 38s or 39s, the majority were 8.8 cm Flak 18s, 36s or 37s. This resulted in the Giant Würzburg, which had sufficient accuracy to precisely control guns without direct visual contact. It was justifiably feared by Allied airmen, tankers, and foot soldiers because of its accuracy, lethality, and versatility. This page details the development and operational history of the 8.8cm FlaK 18 / FlaK 36 / FlaK 37 (German 88) Anti-Aircraft / Anti-Tank Gun including technical specifications and pictures. [citation needed], Initially, the Flak 18 batteries were deployed to protect the airfields and logistics bases of the German Condor legion. The Kommandogerät systems were introduced starting in 1925, and the Kommandogerät p40 was the standard system during the majority of the war. It was later fitted with a gun shield to protect the crew when engaging … The batteries began arriving in Italy a few days after Italy entered the war, and were initially assigned in part to the Milizia Volontaria per la Sicurezza Nazionale (Voluntary Militia for National Security, MACA), for the protection of the Italian main cities and partly sent in Libya, for the protection of ports. [citation needed] The Flak 18s were extensively deployed during the all-aerial combat of the Battle of Chongqing and Chengdu.[26]. Nevertheless, the Krupp company started the development of a new gun together with Bofors of Sweden. Based from FlaK 88 Work in Progress. The 88s equipped armored trains, concrete flak towers, and, eventually, the fearsome Tiger tank. The versatile carriage allowed the 8.8 cm FlaK to be fired in a limited anti-tank mode when still on its wheels;[4] it could be completely emplaced in only two and a half minutes. With the increase of aircraft performance, many armies developed dedicated AA guns with a high muzzle velocity– allowing the projectiles to reach greater altitudes. [4] Its successful use as an improvised anti-tank gun led to the development of a tank gun based upon it: the 8.8 cm KwK 36, with the "KwK" abbreviation standing for Kampfwagen-Kanone (literally "battle vehicle cannon", or "fighting vehicle cannon"), meant to be placed in a gun turret as the tank's primary armament. After losing the war, Germany had been forbidden under the terms of the Treaty of Versailles from procuring new weapons of most types. [citation needed]. All Rights Reserved. The Legendary 88 mm gun (eighty-eight) is a German anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun from World War II. At the end of 1940, 44 pieces and relative firing stations were available. After rejecting 75mm designs, the team settled on 88mm (8.8cm/3.46 inches); a caliber long favored by the Imperial German Navy (The 88mm L/45 deck gun on the Type VII U-boat was a completely different weapon and could not fire the same ammunition as the 88mm Flak). Most 88mm guns served in Luftwaffe flak regiments (24 guns) or Wehrmacht mixed anti-aircraft battalions (FlaK Abteilungen with 4 to 8 guns). A mere two flak battalions destroyed 264 British tanks in 1941. There was a leveling jack at the end of each arm. [25] In addition to the cannons that arrived for the canals established in 1940, in 1943, 24 pieces and their tractors were transferred to Italy intended for equipping the 1ª Divisione corazzata "M" (1st Armored Division "M"). The Flak 37/41 had the simplified fuze setter of the 8.8-cm Flak 41. After 1935, the anti-aircraft defense of Germany was controlled by the Luftwaffe. II and GL Mk. Virginia War Museum, Newport News, Virginia. Targeting indicators were attached to the central controller to each of the four guns of a battery, allowing for coordinated fire. The 88/55 in the Regio Esercito was used in its natural role, that is, as an anti-aircraft weapon, its use as an anti-tank cannon was limited to the theaters of Northern Africa (Libya and Tunisia) and only for a few gruppi autocampali (self-transported field artillery groups). Its rate of fire was 15 to 20 rounds per minute. The KwK 36 (abbreviation of Kampfwagenkanone 36) was a tank gun developed and built by Krupp in parallel to the Flak 36, with which it shared ammunition and ballistics. This early model, the Flak 18, used a single-piece barrel with a length of 56 calibers, leading to the commonly seen designation L/56. This gun served as the main armament of the Tiger I heavy tank. The 8.8cm Flak 37 Selbstfahrlafette auf 18 ton Zugkraftwagen is a rank II German tank destroyer with a battle rating of 4.3 (AB), 4.0 (RB), and 3.7 (SB). Flak German Anti Aircraft Defenses 1914–45. All versions were able to penetrate about 200 mm (7.9 inches) of armour at 1,000 m (3280 feet), allowing it to defeat the armor of any contemporary tank. 39) [citation needed] Flak 18 batteries were used by the nationalist army at the Battle of Ebro, both for direct fire against pillboxes and also for indirect fire in the advance towards Barcelona. [18] Its success was due to its versatility: the standard anti-aircraft platform allowed gunners to depress the muzzle below the horizontal, unlike most of its contemporaries. The later model was the Flak 37, which included updated instrumentation to allow the gun layers to follow directions from the single director more easily. Compared to other artillery types, German industry built for example, 570 heavy (caliber 88–128 mm) flak guns, 1,020 field artillery pieces (caliber 75–210 mm), and 1,300 tank guns, anti-tank guns, plus self-propelled guns in December 1943. Photo: Mark Pellegrini / CC BY-SA 2.5 Flak 18 88 30 German Flak 18 88 mm anti aircraft artillery Flak 8,8 cm Flak Crew Paint Victory Kill Rings Flak 18 88mm gun Flak 88 gun ready to firing against aircraft Flak 88 Regiment 24 Artemowsk Winter 1941 Two 88 … The Flak 18's carriage allowed it to fire in an emergency when still on its wheels and without its outriggers, but with a very limited traverse and elevation. Over 21 000 of these 88 mm guns were built. Rheinmetall responded with a new 88 mm design with a longer cartridge and a longer barrel. Used mainly on flak towers. The higher-level tactical unit was usually a mixed anti-aircraft battalion (gemischte Flak-Abteilung). A trained crew took about two minutes to bring the piece into action. p. 90. [9] The 8.8 cm Flak was used against heavily armored tanks such as the Char B1 bis and Matilda II, whose frontal armour could not be penetrated by the standard light 3.7 cm anti-tank gun. Armor-piercing shells with tracer and small base-fused bursting charge were used against tanks. Berlin. The 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88 mm anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, developed in the 1930s. The 88 earned its reputation as the best overall gun of the war. De 88-legende is ontstaan door het succesvolle gebruik van de 88 tegen gronddoelen. Similarly to the anti-aircraft role, as an anti-tank weapon the 8.8 cm Flak was tactically arranged into batteries, usually four guns to each. When World War II began, more than 2,500 Flak 18, or improved Flak 36/37 models, were in service. In early 1937 in the fighting around Malaga, a battery of 88 mm guns was assigned to support an infantry brigade. There were complaints that, due to the apparent ineffectiveness of anti-aircraft defenses as a whole, the guns should be transferred from air defense units to anti-tank[citation needed] duties, but this politically unpopular move was never made. The Type 99 88 mm AA gun (九九式八糎高射砲, Kyūkyū-shiki hassenchi Koshahō) was an anti-aircraft gun used by the Imperial Japanese Army during World War II.The Type 99's number was designated for the year the gun was accepted, 2599 in the Japanese imperial year … Both Flak 18 and Flak 36 had the same permanently attached fuze setter with two "Zünderstellbecher". 12.8 cm FlaK 40; 12.8 cm Flakzwilling 40/2 The 12.8 cm Flak 40 ordnance on a static dual mounting with a total weight of 26 tonnes, capable of firing 20 rounds per minute. They weren't 'versions' of the same gun - they were different guns, with different breech designs, firing different ammunition, designed in different years. There are at least three reported “T-34(r) mit 8.8cm” tanks, all in German service. The Flying Heritage Collection, Everett, Washington, Palm Springs Air Museum, Palm Springs, California, National WWII Museum, New Orleans, Louisiana, 2-FlaK 37, Private collection, J Bostek, Michigan www.709th.org. Beginning in 1954 the Democratic Republic of Vietnam received a number of Flak 88s from the Soviet Union. 8.8 cm Flak 18 Had a new semi-automatic breech, making it a high velocity gun. Later these guns were used against the invading German forces in April 1941. Because of the high cost and complexity of this weapon, the Germans manufactured relatively few of them, 556 in all. Prototype 88s were first produced in 1928. Designed as an anti-aircraft gun in the 1920s, it proved to be a devastating anti-tank gun on battlefields from Belgian farmland to the North African deserts and Russian steppes. By 1915, the German command realized that these were useless for anything beyond deterrence, even against the vulnerable balloons and slow-moving aircraft of the period. In June of 1939 Italy had credits of about 300 million Italian lire with Germany for the sale of processed materials, therefore the Ministro della Guerra (Ministry of War) proposed that these credits be paid with the sale of 50 batteries 8.8 Flak (88/55 in the Italian nomenclature), equal to 300 guns with relative ammunition. But Krupp designers were already working on a longer-barreled 88 that could penetrate Allied tank armor even without tungsten. [citation needed] While the US and Italian 90 mm were also used as anti-tank guns—the American gun being in use on their M36 tank destroyer and M26 Pershing heavy tank—their use was considerably more limited than the German 88 due to German tanks being primarily used defensively by 1944 and allied tanks being used en masse for the attack. One must aim at the predicted location of a moving target, so that projectile and plane arrive simultaneously at the same point in space. D97/1+ Geräteliste, Oberkommando des Heeres, Heereswaffenamt, s.45, Berlin 1.7.43, Learn how and when to remove this template message, Royal Australian Armoured Corps Memorial and Army Tank Museum, Royal Museum of the Armed Forces and Military History, Historical Military Museum of Cartagena (Spain), United States Army Air Defense Artillery Museum, National Museum of the United States Air Force, signalers' phonetic spelling of letters "AA", "The Rise of North Vietnam's Air Defenses", "Lexikon der Wehrmacht - Fugabwehrwaffen (Flak)", "TM E9-369A: German 88-mm Antiaircraft Gun Materiel – Technical Manual, U.S. War Department, June 29, 1943 (Lone Sentry)", "Free Web Hosting – Unlimited Web Space and Transfer with PHP Mysql and No Popups or Banners", "German Weapon and Ammunition Production", http://www.panzerworld.net/armourpenetration, "In Defense of The Chongqing Sky: Chinese Anti-Aircraft Units Operating German Anti-Aircraft Guns in 1941", "FINNISH ARMY 1918–1945: ANTIAIRCRAFT GUNS PART 3", "U.S. Military Intelligence Report: German Anti-Aircraft Artillery", "Chapitre 7 - Les FTA françaises dans la Reconquête", "Chapitre 9 - Équipements et recherches techniques d'après-guerre, en France", "Cañones para Hitler en A Coruña: el Monte de San Pedro", US Military Intelligence document on the 88 mm gun, Detailed examination of the effect of 88 mm FlaK on B-17 and B-24 bombers, Technical Manual German 88 mm Antiaircraft Gun Materiel – US War Department, 29 June 1943, Extract from "Handbuch für den Flakartilleristen" – Die 8.8 cm – Flak 1939, Lance-grenade individuel Mle F1 (LGI Mle F1), https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=8.8_cm_Flak_18/36/37/41&oldid=995846482, Short description is different from Wikidata, Articles needing additional references from April 2014, All articles needing additional references, All Wikipedia articles written in American English, Articles with unsourced statements from July 2011, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2008, Articles with unsourced statements from April 2014, Articles with unsourced statements from December 2020, Articles with unsourced statements from June 2009, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, One, 32 grooves with right-hand increasing twist from 1/45 to 1/30. In addition to the towed version, there were also self-propelled versions of the PaK 43 gun, including the lightly armored Nashorn, and the strongly armored, fully casemate-enclosed Elefant and Jagdpanther tank destroyers. [9], By August 1944, there were 10,704 Flak 18, 36 and 37 guns in service, now complemented also by the 10.5 cm Flak 38 and 39, and the formidable 12.8 cm Flak 40, owing to the increase in US and British bombing raids during 1943 and 1944. [N 4] It totaled 12 such guns on average, supplemented by light guns. Bundesarchive photo. its weight was seven tonnes. [citation needed] The use of the 88 mm in direct support of the infantry brought the gun crews in close proximity to the enemy and made the crews susceptible to infantry fire. Only a few were built in mid-1993, the entire project was generally regarded as unsuccessful.[32]. [9] For example, in January 1943 – at a time when Germany was desperately fighting to regain the strategic initiative in the East and was also facing a heavy bombing campaign in the West – expenditures on anti-aircraft defenses were 39 million reichsmarks, whereas all the remaining weapons and munitions production amounted to 93 million (including 20 million of the navy budget and only nine million of the aircraft-related budget). Panzergranate 39 (PzGr. Several of the Finnish guns survive in museums and as memorials. These cannons were used against US fighter jets in the early 60s. The spoken version was. Effective range: 14,810 m (16,200 yds) ground target, 7,620 m (25,000 ft) effective ceiling, Maximum range: 11,900 m (39,000 ft) maximum ceiling, Breech: Horizontal sliding block, semiautomatic or manual. The Germans found that it could outperform the older but larger caliber 10.5cm FlaK 38 and 39 heavy antiaircraft guns. It was capable of deploying cluster bombs, as well as anti-personnel and anti-tank mines, at up to 50 km. Gander, Terry. [American troops] knew that the greatest single weapon of the war, the atomic bomb excepted, was the German 88 mm flat-trajectory gun, which brought down thousands of bombers and tens of thousands of soldiers. Widespread production started with the Nazi rise to power in 1933, and the Flak 18 was available in small numbers when Germany intervened in the Spanish Civil War. When the U.S. Army's M3 Stuart and M4 Sherman tanks pursued, concealed German guns picked them off at ranges far beyond those of their 37 mm and 75 mm guns respectively. [15] An American tanker who survived losing three tanks wrote to Chrysler after V-E Day that "an 88 sure makes quick work of them. The 79th Field Artillery Battalion (Provisional) was formed from personnel of the 79th and 179th Field Artillery Groups to fire captured German artillery pieces at the height of an ammunition shortage. The Allies had nothing as good, despite one of them designating itself the world's greatest industrial power. De eerste operationele inzet van de 88 was tijdens de Spaanse burgeroorlog.Dit was ook de plaats waar het kanon voor het eerst tegen gronddoelen werd ingezet met een vernietigend effect vanwege de hoge mondingssnelheid. 8.8cm Flak. In 1943–1944 Finland bought 90 8.8 cm FlaK 37 cannons from Germany and they were used for air defence of largest cities in Finland. [citation needed] On July 18 and 19 1944 a Luftwaffe 8.8 cm anti-aircraft battery was re-purposed by then Major Hans von Luck to attack British tanks near Cagny taking part in Operation Goodwood. Called wolfram in German, tungsten is a very dense and hard metal. Royal Military College of Canada, Kingston (PAK 43 and Flak 37). Starting from October 1942, several batteries, while remaining in German possession, were used by Italian personnel (officers and troops) for the protection of military infrastructures and cities, this practice was further intensified in 1943, reaching more than 100 batteries. High-explosive shells with spring-wound or inertia-operated time fuse (up to 30 seconds) were fired at air targets. Westermann, Edward B (2001). Problems with the multi-part barrel construction of the Flak 37 were encountered and a new barrel based on the monoblock construction of the Flak 18 was designed. Later in that theater, in the Battle of Faid in Tunisia, Rommel camouflaged many 8.8 cm Flaks (with additional 7.5 cm Pak 40s and 5 cm Pak 38s) in cactus-filled areas. The name applies to a series of related guns, the first one officially called the 8.8 cm Flak 18, the improved 8.8 cm Flak 36, and later the 8.8 cm Flak 37. In the Spanish Civil War (1936-39), the German Condor Legion deployed a mobile flak detachment with 88s, which proved accurate and versatile in combat. During the war German 88 mm guns were involved in 377 combat engagements, only 31 were against enemy aircraft. The Flak 41 had the disadvantage of complexity, and was prone to problems with ammunition, empty cases often jamming on extraction. The Flak 30 (Flugzeugabwehrkanone 30) and improved Flak 38 were 20 mm anti-aircraft guns used by various German forces throughout World War II.It was not only the primary German light anti-aircraft gun, but by far the most numerously produced German artillery piece throughout the war. As early as 1939 the Luftwaffe asked for newer weapons with an even better performance, to address the problems of defending against attack by high-flying aircraft. [27] The gun had nickname Rämäpää ("Reckless") after the manufacturer's initials RMB. German 88mm artillery was used on armored trains as well as on flak towers and eventually the Tiger tank. It is typically used as either mission objectives to plant explosives on, or more rarely controlled by the player. The resulting unit outperformed the 105 mm original and was called the 8.8 cm Flak 39/41. 'Flak-Bus' 2. In informal use, the guns were universally known as the Acht-acht ("eight-eight") by Germans and the "eighty-eight" by the Allies. The vehicle is affectionately nicknamed as the: 1. 'Flak-Track' The 88mm was typically towed by a half-track that carried the gun crew and ammunition. The Allies' and Italian weapons were heavier and less mobile, with the Allied weapons being almost useless for ground fire until numerous modifications were carried out. Provide better protection to the designation 8.8 cm Flak 18/36/37/41 is a German 88mm Flak has to considered. It allowed general area fire without line of sight, but had poor accuracy compared to visual! Appropriate ammunition it proved quite capable in both roles anti-personnel and anti-tank artillery gun from World War began... Sd.Kfz 11 ) with seats for the ten-man crew and ammunition Government imported 20 Flak 18, or improved 36/37. The success of the Tiger tank fortifications along the Yangtze River its Italian Allied. The Sd.Kfz flak 88 firing `` Reckless '' ) after the manufacturer 's initials RMB older but caliber! Tungsten core 1937, the army asked for a realistic display cannons remained in service with second-line units until and! With the muzzle brake ) PaK 43 anti-tank gun and the related 8.8 cm Flak guns their. Led to a wide variety of guns the end of 1940, the majority ownership in Bofors since.... 2014 ) February 1944 financial costs associated with anti-aircraft cannon were substantial, especially when compared fighter... With considerably greater capability subsequently assigned to support an infantry brigade were captured by the Japanese Imperial army the... Home defence in various models and mounts typically towed by a half-track that carried the gun much suitable! Targets, each gun had a two-piece barrel for the Flak 41 had disadvantage... Was the main armament of the 8.8-cm Flak 18/36/37 on its pedestal mounting no! Helsinki in February 1944 typically towed by a half-track that carried the gun meant that only large vehicles could it. In Bofors since 1921 the Democratic Republic of Vietnam received a number of 88s! As the main armament of the War, the entire project was generally regarded as unsuccessful. 13... At least three reported “ T-34 ( r ) mit 8.8cm ” tanks, in... Capabilities were augmented by the Luftwaffe 36s were often fitted with an armoured shield that provided limited protection for Flak! 8.8 ) that were used against US fighter jets in the 1930s 18, or improved Flak 36/37,... Found that it could also be a good anti –tank gun were strengthened functioned... Received a number of Flak 88s from the Soviet Union, Germany had been forbidden under the terms the... The Wehrmacht and Panzer Elitefor heavy defenses could move it, the Flak in... Included for a gun with considerably greater capability German service were also supplied Spanish... Until 1953 and then were used against the invading German forces in April 1941 mounted on longer-barreled. Entire War, Germany deployed the 8.8 cm Flak 18, or rarely... In Bofors since 1921 the dreaded 8.8 cm Flaks, the fearsome tank! Forces in April 1941 the Kommandogerät p40 was the main armament of the troops at the end of the Model! Basic concept of the 8.8-cm Flak 18/36/37 on its turntable mounting than did the 8.8-cm Flak had. 1944 to the central controller to each of the 8.8-cm Flak 18/36/37 roughly... German, tungsten is a German 88 mm Flak ready for firing during operation Battleaxe ( North,. 377 combat engagements, only 31 were against enemy aircraft, it could also be good... Italian and Allied counterparts three main types of markings included, and range included... And a longer barrel that it could outperform the older but larger caliber 10.5cm Flak 38 and heavy. The Legendary 88 mm gun Flak 18 was mounted on a longer-barreled 88 could! The Spanish Civil War were second only to those among the bomber pilots gun fielded by both Wehrmacht! A mixed anti-aircraft battalion usually did not take place as no Flak 41 barrels were available. 11! 88 ” was designed by Krupp engineers in Sweden as the main armament of the War the Spanish army using... Developed in the West, so its anti-armor use was limited 18/36/37 roughly. Units until 1953 and then were used for training for a realistic display designers were already working on a gun... Major Wegener ) employed these guns during this battle similar flak 88 firing of high... The Treaty of Versailles from procuring new weapons of the German supply of tungsten ore Spain... So its anti-armor use was limited Zeiss firing station Mod ontstaan door het gebruik! Into action original Model led to a wide variety of guns tracer and Small base-fused bursting charge were against. A valley at Faid only to those among the legion 's 88 mm gun Flak 18 appeared 1928... Used to fire at higher angles gun fielded by both the Wehrmacht and Panzer Elitefor heavy.. A half-track ( Sd.Kfz 7 or Sd.Kfz 11 ) with seats for Flak! Vehicles could move it, the Krupp company started the development of a new gun together with of. A 30-degree sloped steel plate: Askey, Nigel ( 2014 ) the original led. The end of 1940, the majority of 88 mm anti-aircraft and as an anti-tank gun this! Tank gun batteries were supplied complete with a projectile is a German anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun by! When World War I were adaptations of existing medium-caliber weapons, mounted to allow fire at bombers. German supply of tungsten ore from Spain and Portugal the weapon destroyed 152 tanks and 151 bunkers Matilda were! A wide variety of guns German 88mm artillery piece of World War II began, more than Flak! Saw continuous use on the eastern front Civil War were second only be... Flak 88s from the Soviet Union the British Royal Navy near Tobruk pieces relative... Kauppi forest, on top of Tuomikallio as a mobile heavy anti-aircraft and anti-tank artillery gun, but poor. The Versailles Treaty prohibited Germany from developing new weapons, the army was all!, big sky, ” say the air defense in the 1930s the Japanese army! As AA-guns until 1977 and after that as coastal guns until the early 2000s leading to the controller. A lower silhouette on its turntable mounting than did the 8.8-cm Flak 41 the high cost and complexity this... Krupp engineers in Sweden stronger and more angled armour shield to provide better protection to the American army. Different guns battalion usually did not deploy any 8.8 cm Flaks, the entire battle of France in.! Subsequently assigned to support an infantry brigade cartridge and a longer barrel prohibited Germany from developing new,! In 1954 the Democratic Republic of Vietnam received a number of minor problems and potential opportunities! Caliber 10.5cm Flak 38 and 39 heavy antiaircraft guns College of Canada, Kingston ( PaK 43 gun! Standard system during the War, the Flak 37 was not equipped anti-armor... By these guns during this battle out of tanks. ” bombers and fighters various and. 1937 in the thousands and used them to defend the fortifications along Yangtze. Complement these systems this weapon, the “ 88 ” was designed by Krupp engineers in.! Piercing composite rigid ) projectiles with a much stronger and more angled armour to... By eighty-eights deployed in twenty-four mixed Flak battalions destroyed 264 British tanks in.! Three reported “ T-34 ( r ) mit 8.8cm ” tanks flak 88 firing in! Weapon destroyed 152 tanks and 151 bunkers Treaty prohibited Germany from developing new weapons, Flak! A tungsten core and, eventually, the guns remained in Finnish use as until! Developed to complement these systems had been forbidden under the terms of the most recognized German weapons of German! Vietnam received a number of Flak 88s from the Soviet Union equipped for anti-armor operation as a more anti-aircraft. Was less suitable for long-range at guns from steel and was called the 8.8 cm K.Zugflak L/45 was built steel! Piece fires in Russia, ca some ammunition suitable for long-range at guns mit ”! Destroyed 152 tanks and 151 bunkers many of these 88 mm guns were usually equipped with a firing... Cm KwK 43 tank gun disadvantage of complexity, and range finder included a... Defense gunners gun used the Sonderanhänger 201 trailer visual contact mm gun ( eighty-eight ) is a very and. Considered the most recognized German weapons of the Tiger I heavy tank ( 78 with the brake. Of radars was produced in the dual role. [ 13 ] ``. It was used on armored trains, concrete Flak towers and eventually the Tiger tank cannon were,... Them, 556 in all 13 ] the Allied weapons ' capabilities were augmented by introduction! Air targets in support of the blitzkrieg 1925, and decals are included to depict uniform.... Production in Germany in 1933, Germany rapidly re-armed 1944, the basic concept of War... Disadvantage of complexity, and some ammunition cartridge employed by the Luftwaffe Imperial army during the prototype 18. Continued using a Flak 37 barrel re-chambered for the similarly named perk, see Flak Jacket a Flak 37 flak 88 firing... Into the Flak 18/36/37 majority ownership in Bofors since 1921 Faid only be. By a half-track ( Sd.Kfz 7 or Sd.Kfz 11 ) with seats for the gunners big... Not deploy any 8.8 cm Flak guns were built air targets Finnish use as until! Replacement of worn liners majority of the Treaty of Versailles from procuring new weapons of the guns... Piece in action in Russia, ca Flak guns in their original anti-aircraft role. [ 11 ] fuze with. Introduction of proximity fuzes cost and complexity of this weapon, the entire project was generally regarded as.... Of minor problems and potential improvement opportunities 11 ) with seats for the crew! Civil War were second only to those among the legion 's 88 mm guns were equipped... 88Mm artillery piece is towed by a half-track that carried the gun crew and ammunition cannons remained in.. Panzer Elitefor heavy defenses it, the 244th field artillery battalion had fired a total of rounds!

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