[15] The common name "tea-tree" has been applied to species in the genera Leptospermum, Melaleuca, Kunzea, and Baeckea because the sailors on the Endeavour used the leaves of a shrub from one of these groups as a replacement for tea Camellia sinensis during Captain James Cook's 1770 voyage to Australia.[16]. [30], Melaleucas are popular garden plants, both in Australia and other tropical areas worldwide. Afrikaans: Melaleuka Deutsch: Myrtenheide suomi: Mesikaarnamyrtti français: Niaouli For more multimedia, look at Melaleuca quinquenervia on Wikimedia Commons. Die Bestäubung erfolgt durch Insekten (Entomophilie) oder Vögel (Ornithophilie). Hình ảnh. (One specimen of M. cajuputi reached 46 m (151 ft)[3], Many, like M. lineariifolia, are known as paperbarks and have bark that can be peeled in thin sheets, whilst about 20% of the genus, including M. bracteata, have hard, rough bark and another 20% have fibrous bark. Der einzelne behaarte oder unbehaarte Griffel endet meist mit einer kopfigen Narbe. Joseph J. Brophy, Lyndley A. Craven, John C. Doran: W. Blaschek, Rudolf Hänsel, K. Keller, J. Reichling, H. Rimpler, G. Schneider (Hrsg. Melaleuca quinquenervia (lat. [2] [3] Inga underarter finns listade i Catalogue of Life. Many are popular garden plants, either for their attractive flowers or as dense screens and a few have economic value for producing fencing and oils such as "tea tree" oil. ex Kuntze nom. The first to be cultivated were grown in England from seed in 1771. Within the head or spike, the flowers are often in groups of two or three, each flower or group having a papery bract at its base. Das ätherische Öl Melaleuca, das vielen unter dem Namen „Teebaum“ bekannt ist, besteht aus über 92 verschiedenen chemischen Verbindungen undverfügt deshalb über schier grenzenlose Einsatzmöglichkeiten. Five sepals occur, although these are sometimes fused into a ring of tissue and five petals which are usually small, not showy, and fall off as the flower opens or soon after. Sie enthalten ätherische Öle. [2]:16–17[9], In 2014, Lyndley Craven and others proposed, on the basis of DNA evidence, that species in the genera Beaufortia, Calothamnus, Conothamnus, Eremaea, Lamarchea, Petraeomyrtus, Phymatocarpus and Regelia be transferred to Melaleuca. Rafaël Govaerts, N. Sobral, P. Ashton, F. Barrie, B. K. Holst, L. L. Landrum, K. Matsumoto, F. Fernanda Mazine, E. Nic Lughadha, C. Proença et al. Most melaleucas occur naturally only on the Australian mainland. rej., Calothamnus Labill., Beaufortia R.Br., Billottia Colla, Baudinia Lesch. Introduced in the early 20th century, it has become a serious invasive species , with damaging effects including the displacement of native species, reduction in wildlife habitat, alteration of hydrology, modification of soil, and changes in fire regimes. Die Myrtenheiden (Melaleuca) sind eine Pflanzengattung in der Familie der Myrtengewächse (Myrtaceae). superfl., Kajuputi Adans. var., Eremaeopsis Kuntze, Petraeomyrtus Craven.[3]. The seeds are sometimes retained in the fruit for many years, only opening when the plant, or part of it, dies or is heated in a bushfire. coriacea Melaleuca leucadendra var. Einige Autoren stellen die Arten der Gattung der Zylinderputzer (Callistemon R.Br.) The stamens vary greatly in colour, from white to cream or yellow, red, or mauve with their yellow tips (the anthers) contrasting with their "stalks" (filaments). Melaleuca quinquenervia (auch als „Myrtenheide“ bezeichnet) ist eine Pflanzenart aus der Gattung der Myrtenheiden (Melaleuca).Sie ist in Australien, Neuseeland, Neuguinea und Neukaledonien heimisch, wird jedoch auch außerhalb dieses Gebietes kultiviert. Außerdem kommt sie auf wilsonii. Melaleuca quinquenervia [1] är en myrtenväxtart som först beskrevs av Antonio José Cavanilles, och fick sitt nu gällande namn av Stanley Thatcher Blake. Sie gehört zur Artengruppe der Melaleuca leucadendra. Der Australische Teebaum (Melaleuca alternifolia) ist eine Pflanzenart aus der Gattung Myrtenheiden (Melaleuca) in der Familie der Myrtengewächse (Myrtaceae). [29], Melaleuca cajuputi is used to produce a similar oil, known as cajuput oil, which is used in Southeast Asia to treat a variety of infections and to add fragrance to food and soaps. Melaleuca quinquenervia S.T.Blake: Посилання ; Вікісховище: Melaleuca quinquenervia: EOL: 2508582: IPNI: 598073-1: ITIS: 27228: МСОП: 49278407: NCBI: 164942: Мелалеука п’ятинервна, найолі (Melaleuca quinquenervia) — вид рослин роду мелалеука (Melaleuca). The southwest of Western Australia has the greatest density of species, and in the tropical north of the continent, species such as M. argentea and M. leucadendra are the dominant species over large areas. [26], Melaleuca alternifolia is notable for its essential oil which is both antifungal and antibiotic,[27] while safely usable for topical applications. Sie bevorzugt die Küstenregion, kommt aber in Flusstälern bis zu 350 Kilometer landeinwärts vor. Es sind Hochblätter vorhanden. Melaleuca leucadendra ist im gesamten Norden Australiens, westlich vom Bonaparte Archipel bis Shoalwater Bay (Queensland), in den Bundesstaaten Western Australia, dem Northern Territory und Queensland weit verbreitet und häufig. Man findet sie auch in Burma, Malaysia und auf den Molukken.Außerhalb der natürlichen Vorkommen ist die Art im Süden von Florida und auf Hawaii stark vertreten, weitere Vorkommen gibt es in Südkalifornien, Texas, auf den Karibischen Inseln, in Indien und auf den Philippinen. An Melaleuca quinquenervia in nahilalakip ha genus nga Melaleuca, ngan familia nga Myrtaceae. Birds such as lorikeets and honeyeaters as well as bats often visit the flowers and are probably also pollinators. Eight occur in Tasmania, but only two are endemic to that island. Many are adapted for life in swamps and boggy places, while others thrive in the poorest of sandy soils or on the edge of saltpans. Typusart ist Melaleuca leucadendra .mw-parser-output .Person{font-variant:small-caps}(L.) L.[4] Synonyme für Melaleuca L. nom. angustifolia An Melaleuca quinquenervia in uska species han Magnoliopsida nga syahan ginhulagway ni Antonio José Cavanilles, ngan ginhatag han pagkayana nga asya nga ngaran ni Stanley Thatcher Blake. Their flowers generally occur in groups, forming a "head" or "spike" resembling a brush used for cleaning bottles, containing up to 80 individual flowers. Melaleuca és un gènere de plantes en la família de les mirtàcies que inclou 236 espècies. Every species in the genus is an evergreen, and the leaves vary in size from minute and scale-like (M. micromera) to 270 mm (11 in) long (M. leucadendra). Die Blüten sind kurz gestielt oder sitzend. Est cultivé principalement : il … More than 100 species of insects are known to feed on melaleucas. The plant he called Arbor alba is now known as Melaleuca leucadendra. Native stands have fewer predators, but tea tree sawfly (Pterygophorus species) and longicorn beetles are often found. Most have distinct oil glands dotted in the leaves, making the leaves aromatic, especially when crushed. [6], The genus Callistemon was raised by Robert Brown, who noted its similarity to Melaleuca, distinguishing it only on the basis of whether the stamens are free of each other, or joined in bundles. [17] A few tropical species also occur in Papua New Guinea, and the distribution of one subspecies, Melaleuca cajuputi subsp. Some have a wide distribution and are common, whilst others are rare and endangered. [1][2], Die eingeschlechtigen oder zwittrigen, radiärsymmetrischen Blüten sind fünfzählig mit doppelter Blütenhülle (Perianth). [28] This is produced on a commercial scale and marketed as tea tree oil. [19] Melaleucas are also susceptible to myrtle rust (Puccinia psidii) which can result in damage to soft plant material and the death of highly susceptible hosts. nom. Land clearing, exotic myrtle rust, and especially draining and clearing of swamps threaten many species. ex A.Lyons nom. var., Melanoleuce St.-Lag. Most melaleucas are endemic to Australia, with a few also occurring in Malesia. An Melaleuca in uska genus han Magnoliopsida.An Melaleuca in nahilalakip ha familia nga Myrtaceae. [7] Botanists in the past, including Ferdinand von Mueller and Lyndley Craven[8] have proposed uniting the two genera but the matter is not decided. Es ist ein Diskus vorhanden. Chú thích Liên kết ngoài. [2]:19 They range in size from small shrubs that rarely grow to more than 16 m (52 ft) high, to trees up to 35 m (115 ft). The grey-green leaves are egg-shaped, and cream or white bottlebrush-like flowers appear from late spring to autumn. Melaleucas are an important food source for nectarivorous insects, birds, and mammals. Fünf relativ kleine Kelchblätter sind verwachsen oder sie fehlen. cumingiana extends as far north as Myanmar, Thailand, and Vietnam. [21][22][23], Aboriginal Australians used several species of Melaleuca to make rafts, as roofing for shelter, bandages, and food preparation. Melaleuca (/ˌmɛləˈljuːkə/) is a genus of nearly 300 species of plants in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae, commonly known as paperbarks, honey-myrtles or tea-trees (although the last name is also applied to species of Leptospermum). [2]:25–26, The first known description of a Melaleuca species was written by Rumphius in 1741, in Herbarium amboinense[4] before the present system of naming plants was written. Sie enthalten ätherische Öle . Melaleucas range in size from small shrubs such as M. aspalathoides and M. concinna which rarely grow to more than 1 m (3 ft 3 in) high, to trees like M. cajuputi and M. quinquenervia, which can reach 35 m (115 ft). Die fünf Kronblätter sind frei. Die Blätter des Teebaums werden seit Jahrhunderten von den australischen Ureinwohnern genutzt. It was first formally described in 1797 by the Spanish naturalist Antonio José Cavanilles. Many are fire tolerant, regenerating from epicormic buds or by coppicing, but no melaleucas occur in rainforest and few species occur in the arid zone. Seven are endemic to New Caledonia, and one is found only on (Australia's) Lord Howe Island. [2]:20–21, The fruit are woody, cup-shaped, barrel-shaped, or almost spherical capsules, often arranged in clusters along the stems. Melaleuca quinquenervia) — mərsinkimilər fəsiləsinin çay ağacı cinsinə aid bitki növü. Sie gehört zur Artengruppe der Melaleuca leucadendra. Melaleuca-Arten sind immergrüne Sträucher oder Bäume, die je nach Art Wuchshöhen von 1 bis 25 Meter erreichen. angustifolia. [2]:23[18], Some species of Melaleuca, especially M. alternifolia, are cultivated for the production of tea tree oil, and in plantations are susceptible to a number of insect pests. It's incredulous to think that humans turn around and "demonize" their own introduced species, mainly for being "out of (human) control." [3][4] Der Gattungsname Melaleuca ist aus den griechischen Worten μέλας mélas für dunkel oder „schwarz“ und λευκός leukós für „weiß“ abgeleitet und bezieht sich auf die typische Borke. orth. Melaleuca-Arten sind immergrüne Sträucher oder Bäume, die je nach Art Wuchshöhen von 1 bis 25 Meter erreichen. Melaleuca quinquenervia S.T.Blake: Laing Ngalan; Metrosideros quinquenervia Cav. Die gegenständig, wechselständig bis unregelmäßig angeordneten Laubblätter sind gestielt oder sitzend und ledrig. Sur votre achat huile essentielle de vie à prendre par leur aspect décoratif, surtout d’instagram : melaleuca quinquenervia en synergie avec un merveilleux pour plein d’humour. [2]:20–21, Melaleuca flowers are usually arranged in spikes or heads. Melaleuca viridiflora var. Melaleucas are found in a wide variety of habitats. PARTE I O ECOSSISTEMA INVADIDO E AS ESPCIES INVASORAS Captulo 1 As Invases Bioli!as 1"1" INTROD#$%O A introduo de espcies exticas e sua naturalizao hoje considerada como um dos mecanismos responsveis pela alterao global da biosfera, originando modificaes profundas na estrutura e no funcionamento dos ecossistemas, uma homogeneizao dos biota, uma reduo da biodiversidade e a … … 2008: https://de.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Myrtenheiden&oldid=203698083, „Creative Commons Attribution/Share Alike“, Silberbaum-Myrtenheide, Kajeputbaum, Cajeputbaum, Teebaum (. Die gegenständig, wechselständig bis unregelmäßig angeordneten Laubblätter sind gestielt oder sitzend und ledrig. Melaleuca quinquenervia — Niaouli Niaouli … Wikipédia en Français. nom. illeg., Phymatocarpus F.Muell., Meladendron St.-Lag., Melaleucon St.-Lag. Viele Staubblätter sind zu fünf Bündeln zusammengefasst. Melaleuca, like all trees, takes in CO2 and produces oxygen, reducing the carbon footprint of humans. Melaleuca quinquenervia, o niaouli, es un árbol de pequeño y mediano tamaño perteneciente a la familia Myrtaceae.La planta es originaria de Nueva Caledonia, Papúa Nueva Guinea y la costa este de Australia, a partir de Botany Bay en Nueva Gales del Sur hacia el Norte, en Queensland y el Territorio del Norte. One (M. howeana) is endemic to Lord Howe Island and seven are endemic to Grande Terre, the main island of New Caledonia. Le niaouli (Melaleuca quinquenervia) est un arbre de la famille des Myrtaceae originaire de la côte orientale de l'Australie et de Nouvelle-Calédonie. Melaleuca viridiflora, commonly known as broad-leaved paperbark is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is native to woodlands, swamps and streams of monsoonal areas of northern Australia and New Guinea.It is usually a small tree with an open canopy, papery bark and spikes of cream, yellow, green or red flowers. [1] Die Gattung Melaleuca wurde 1767 durch Carl von Linné aufgestellt. Loài này được (Cav.) S.T.Blake mô tả khoa học đầu tiên năm 1958. Introduced in the early 20th century, it has become a serious invasive species, with damaging effects including the displacement of native species, reduction in wildlife habitat, alteration of hydrology, modification of soil, and changes in fire regimes. orth. Melaleuca quinquenervia ist im Osten Australiens, in Neukaledonien und in Papua-Neuguinea beheimatet. var., Conothamnus Lindl., Eremaea Lindl., Manglesia Lindl., Ozandra Raf., Schizopleura Endl., Gymnagathis Schauer, Regelia Schauer, Trichobasis Turcz. Articles relacionats. Melaleuca quinquenervia ingår i släktet Melaleuca och familjen myrtenväxter. Melaleuca quinquenervia — penkiagyslė mirtenė statusas T sritis vardynas apibrėžtis Mirtinių šeimos dekoratyvinis, medieninis, vaistinis, medingas augalas (Melaleuca quinquenervia), paplitęs atogrąžų Azijoje (Malaizijoje) ir Australijoje. Melaleuca quinquenervia (broad-leaved paperbark) is the most damaging of 60 exotic species introduced to the Florida Everglades to help drain low-lying swampy areas. Будова. Melaleuca leucadendra, commonly known as weeping paperbark, long-leaved paperbark or white paperbark is a plant in the myrtle family, Myrtaceae and is widespread in northern Australia, Southeast Asia, New Guinea and the Torres Strait Islands. ): L. A. Craven, R. D. Edwards, K. J. Cowley: Diese Seite wurde zuletzt am 15. In tropical areas, seeds are released annually in the wet season. In Australia, Melaleuca is the third most diverse plant genus with up to 300 species. Melaleuca quinquenervia, commonly known as the broad-leaved paperbark, paper bark tea tree, punk tree or niaouli, is a small- to medium-sized tree of the myrtle family, Myrtaceae. Evidence from DNA studies suggests that either Callistemon and some other genera be incorporated into Melaleuca or that at least 10 new genera be created from the present genus. Media in category "Melaleuca quinquenervia"The following 69 files are in this category, out of 69 total. September 2020 um 20:15 Uhr bearbeitet. Melaleucas grow in a range of soil types and many tolerate occasional or even permanent waterlogging. rubriflora Melaleuca viridiflora var. Die Gattung Melaleuca gehört zur Tribus Melaleuceae in der Unterfamilie Myrtoideae innerhalb der Familie Myrtaceae. Metrosideros albida Sieber ex DC. Melaleuca quinquenervia, allgemein bekannt als das breitblättrige paperbark, Papier Rinde Teebaum, Punk Baum oder niaouli, ist ein kleiner bis mittelgroßer Baum der Myrte Familie, Myrtaceae.Es wächst als bis zu 20 m hoher Baum, dessen Stamm von einer weißen, beige und grauen dicken Papierrinde bedeckt ist. [11] The move has not been adopted by all Australian herbaria with some taxonomists, including Alex George opposing the move. The name Melaleuca was first used by Linnaeus in 1767. angustifolia Melaleuca smithii R.T.Baker Melaleuca maidenii R.T.Baker Melaleuca leucadendra var. auch in die Gattung Melaleuca, dies wird kontrovers diskutiert. orth. D'aquestes unes 230 espècies són endèmiques d'Austràlia, les poques espècies restants es reparteixen per Indonèsia, Papua Nova Guinea, Nova Caledònia i fins i tot a Malàisia. a b; Externa länkar. [32], M. leucadendra in the Royal Botanic Gardens, Sydney, M. pulchella ("claw flower") in Melbourne Botanic Garden, M. squarrosa in Langwarrin Flora and Fauna Reserve, M. pungens useful as a hedge because of its prickly foliage, The widely cultivated M. hypericifolia in Arthurs Seat State Park, World Checklist of Selected Plant Families, Melaleuca quinquenervia § Status in the United States, 10.3417/1055-3177(2006)16[468:ncimfa]2.0.co;2, "Help protect Florida's natural areas from non-native invasive plants", "Melaleuca - Their Botany, Essential Oil and uses (Preliminaries)", "In vitro and in vivo activity of tea tree oil against azole-susceptible and -resistant human pathogenic yeasts", https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Melaleuca&oldid=982404558, Short description is different from Wikidata, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 7 October 2020, at 22:45. [5] Many species previously known as Metrosideros were then placed in Melaleuca. Källor. Sie ist in Australien, Neuseeland, Neuguinea und Neukaledonien heimisch, wird jedoch auch außerhalb dieses Gebietes kultiviert. Melaleuca leucadendra var. It is a tree, sometimes growing to more than 20 m (70 ft) with a trunk covered with thick, white, papery bark and weeping thinner branches. superfl., Cajuputi Adans. Melaleuca quinquenervia là một loài thực vật có hoa trong Họ Đào kim nương. Some melaleucas are commonly cultivated, grown as trees for parks and large gardens (such as Melaleuca leucadendra)[31] or as ornamentals (sometimes as Callistemon) such as M. citrina (Callistemon citrinus), M. hypericifolia and M. ex DC., Lamarchea Gaudich., Lamarkea Rchb. sind: Myrtoleucodendron Burm. It grows as a spreading tree up to 20 m (70 ft) tall, with its trunk covered by a white, beige and grey thick papery bark. Melaleuca quinquenervia ist eine Pflanzenart aus der Gattung der Myrtenheiden . [1][2], Wenige bis viele Blüten stehen in seiten- oder endständigen, einfachen oder zusammengesetzten, ährigen, traubigen oder kopfigen Blütenstände zusammen. Myrtle rust is common in eastern Australia, including Tasmania and has been detected in the Tiwi Islands. [10] The World Checklist of Selected Plant Families maintained by the Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew lists Calothamnus and the other genera as synonyms of the accepted genus Melaleuca. Drei Fruchtblätter sind zu einem halbunterständigen bis unterständigen Fruchtknoten verwachsen. [20], Melaleuca quinquenervia (broad-leaved paperbark) is the most damaging of 60 exotic species introduced to the Florida Everglades to help drain low-lying swampy areas. The most significant of these is the Chrysomelid, Paropsisterna tigrina, but other beetles, cutworm caterpillars (Agrotis species), psyllids, mole crickets (Gryllotalpa), and others cause significant damage. WikiZero Özgür Ansiklopedi - Wikipedia Okumanın En Kolay Yolu . [12], The name Melaleuca is derived from the Ancient Greek μέλας (mélas) meaning "dark" or "black" and λευκός (leukós) meaning "white",[13][14] apparently because one of the first specimens described had fire-blackened white bark. [2] Bildgalleri. L’utilisation de méthyle, réputé pour clarifier les blessures de vous sublimerez vos publications. [1][2], Die harten Kapselfrüchte enthalten wenige bis viele Samen.[1][2]. [25] The Bundjalung people traditionally lived in the area of north-eastern New South Wales where Melaleuca alternifolia is endemic, and they treated skin infections by crushing the leaves of that species over skin infections then covering the area with a warm mudpack. [2]:26–31, Melaleuca are mostly pollinated by insects, including the introduced honey bee (Apis mellifera), flies, beetles, wasps and thrips. Henero sa mga tanom nga bulak ang Melaleuca.Ang Melaleuca sakop sa kabanay nga Myrtaceae. Some species, especially the South Australian swamp paperbark, M. halmaturorum, thrive in saline soils where few other species survive. Metrosideros coriacea Poir. [24] "Bee bread" and honey were collected from the hives of native stingless bees in melaleuca forests in the Northern Territory. Wikipedia. cons. Listade i Catalogue of Life, die je nach Art Wuchshöhen von bis... En français from late spring to autumn des Teebaums werden seit Jahrhunderten von australischen. On the Australian mainland von 1 bis 25 Meter erreichen been detected in the Tiwi Islands [ ]. Behaarte oder unbehaarte Griffel endet meist mit einer kopfigen Narbe Billottia Colla, Lesch! Die Blätter des Teebaums werden seit Jahrhunderten von den australischen Ureinwohnern genutzt gehört zur Tribus Melaleuceae in Unterfamilie. — mərsinkimilər fəsiləsinin çay ağacı cinsinə aid bitki növü năm 1958 leucadendra.Person! 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